Our Founder - Dr. Bruce Bugbee

Dr. Bruce Bugbee founded Apogee Instruments, Inc. in 1996 as a side venture to his career as a professor and researcher at Utah State University in Logan, Utah where he still teaches today. R&D and production of Apogee's earliest sensors occurred at his kitchen table and then moved into his garage. Since then, Apogee has grown into a world-class manufacturer of environmental sensors with dozens of employees, a state-of-the-art headquarters and manufacturing facility, and over 100,000 products in the field.

Bruce has always been a scientist first and businessman second. One of the keys to Apogee's success has been his personal passion for creating top-quality, cost-effective instrumentation for scientists that meet his own rigorous performance standards in the field and the lab.

Under Bruce's leadership, the R&D team at Apogee Instruments has set new benchmarks for instrument performance, while focusing on reduced costs through elegant design and innovative manufacturing techniques. The result is a product line that leads in both quality and price and is now a brand of choice for scientists around the world.

Dr. Bruce Bugbee

Curriculum Vitae of Bruce Bugbee

Professor of Crop Physiology Utah State University
President of Apogee Instruments, Inc.

  • B.S. University of Minnesota
  • M.S. University of California, Davis
  • Ph.D. Penn State University

  • Assistant Professor, Plant Science Dept., Utah State Univ.
  • Associate Professor, Plants, Soils, & Biometeorology Dept.
  • Professor, Plants, Soils, & Climate Dept.

  • 2020 Fellow American Soc. for Horticultural Science
  • 2018 Fellow American Society of Agronomy
  • 2017 Distinguished Alumni Penn State University
  • 2016 D. Wynne Thorne Career Research Award Utah State University
  • 2015 Distinguished Professor College of Agriculture
  • 2012 Governor’s Medal for Science State of Utah
  • 2005 Researcher of the Year College of Agriculture
  • 2001 Outstanding Graduate Mentor Utah State University
  • 2001 Top Professor Award Utah State University

National Committee Appointments and Positions
  • Elected Chair, Biophysical sensors and measurements community, Am. Soc. Agronomy (2014-2015)
  • Elected chairman of the Crop Physiology division, American Soc. of Agronomy (2003-2004)
  • Invited to participate in a comprehensive 2-year review NASA Life Sciences research for the National Research Council (1996-97).  This resulted in co-editing a book, “Advanced Technology for Human Life Support in Space” published by the NRC.
  • Invited to serve on the American Association of Biological Sciences Advisory panel to review research proposals (3 invitations: 1992; 2001; 2008).
  • Nominated for National Science Foundation "Presidential Young Investigator Award" 1987.

Professional Service
  • Reviewed 42 manuscripts and 28 proposals in the past 10 years (2010-2020) for the Agronomy, Horticulture, Plant Physiology, and other journals and Federal agencies.

Invited Book Chapters
  • Kusuma, P., P.M. Pattison & B. Bugbee. (2021). Photon efficacy in horticulture. Turning LEDs packages into LED luminaires for indoor farming. In: Plant factory: basics, applications and advanced research, Eds. T. Kozai, G. Niu & J. Masabni. Elsevier
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2018. Instruments and approaches for accurate measurement of air temperature. In: J. Hatfield (ed). Agroclimatology. Am. Soc. of Agronomy publication. Madison, WI.
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2018. Solar, Net, and Photosynthetic radiation. In: J. Hatfield (ed). Agroclimatology. Am. Soc. of Agronomy publication. Madison, WI. 
  • Bugbee, B. 2017. Economics of LED lighting. In: S.D. Gupta (ed.). Light emitting diodes for agriculture. Smart lighting. p. 81-99. Springer Verlag, Singapore. (ISBN 978-981-10-5807-3) doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5807-3_4
  • Fisher, P. Both, A. J. and B. Bugbee. 2017. Supplemental Lighting Technology, Costs and Efficiency. Chapter 8. In: P. Fisher and E. Runkle (eds). Lighting Up Profits: Understanding Greenhouse Lighting. Ball Red Book. Meister Publishing.
  • Bugbee, B. 2011. Effect of Environment on Ethylene Stress and Cotton. Chapter 5. In: Derrick M. Oosterhuis, (ed.). Stress Physiology in Cotton. The Cotton Foundation reference book series, Cordova TN.
  • Doucette, W., E. Dettenmaier, B. Bugbee and D. Mackay . 2010. Mass Transport from Soil to Plants. In: L. Thibodeaux and D. Mackay (eds.). Handbook of Chemical Mass Transport in the Environment. CRC Press.
  • Klassen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2005. Shortwave radiation. Chapter 3. pages 43-58 In: Micrometeorology in Agriculture Systems. Am. Soc. of Agronomy monograph no. 47. Madison, WI.
  • Bugbee, B. 2004. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture. In: Proceedings of the South Pacific Soilless Culture Conference. M. Nichols (ed.) Acta Hort 648: 99-112.
  • Klassen, S.P., G. Ritchie, J. M. Frantz, D. Pinnock, and B. Bugbee. 2003. Real time Imaging of Ground Cover: Relationships with Radiation Capture, Canopy Photosynthesis, and Daily Growth rate. Chapter 1: Pages 3 - 14. In: Digital Imaging and Spectral Techniques: Applications to Precision Agriculture and Crop Physiology. Am. Soc. Agronomy special publication No. 66. Madison, WI.
  • Doucette, W.J., B. Bugbee, S.C. Smith, C.J. Pajak, and J.S. Ginn. 2003. Uptake, Metabolism, and Phytovolatilization of TCE by Indigenous Vegetation. In: McCutcheon, S. and J. Schnoor. (eds). Phytoremediation: Transformation and Control of Contaminants. John Wiley and Sons, NY.
  • Bugbee, B. 1996. Growth Analysis and Yield Components. In: F.B. Salisbury (ed.). Units, Symbols, and Terminology for Plant Physiology. Oxford University Press. Bugbee, B. 1994. Effects of Radiation Quality, Intensity, and Duration on Photosynthesis and Growth. p. 39-50. In: International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop. T. Tibbitts ed. NASA Tech Proceeding No. NASA-CP-95-3309. Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899.
  • Bugbee, B. 1994. Effects of Radiation Quality, Intensity, and Duration on Photosynthesis and Growth. p. 39-50. In: International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop. T. Tibbitts ed. NASA Tech Proceeding No. NASA-CP-95-3309. Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899.
  • Bugbee, B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1989. Controlled Environ¬ment Crop Production: Hydroponics versus Lunar Regolith. p. 107-129. In: D. Henninger and D. Ming (eds.) Lunar Agriculture. Am. Soc. of Agronomy.
  • Salisbury, F.B. and B. Bugbee. 1985. Wheat Farming in a Lunar Base. In: Michael B. Duke and Wendell W. Mendell (eds.) Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. Lunar and Planetary In¬stitute, 3303 NASA Road One, Houston, Texas 77048.

Books Edited
  • Advances in Space Research. 1992. Life Sciences and Space Research: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems. R. MacElroy, M. Averner, T. Tibbitts, B. Bugbee, G. Horneck, and E. Dunlop (eds). Pergamon Press, NY.


Publications in Refereed Journals

(Google Scholar h-index: 49; i10-index 108)

  • Kusuma, P. and B. Bugbee. 2020. Far-red Fraction: An Improved Metric for Characterizing Phytochrome Effects on Morphology. Jour. Am Soc Hort Sci. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS05002-20
  • Zhen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2020. Substituting far-red for traditionally defined photosynthetic photons results in equal canopy quantum yield for CO2 fixation and increased photon capture during long-term studies: Implications for re-defining PAR. Frontiers in Plant Science. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.581156
  • Kusuma, P., M. Pattison, and B. Bugbee. 2020. From physics to fixtures to food: Current and potential LED efficacy. Nature-Horticulture Research 7:56.https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0283-7
  • Zhen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2020. Far-red photons have equivalent efficiency to traditional photosynthetic photons: implications for re-defining photosynthetically active radiation. Plant Cell and Environment.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.13730
  • Stott, L., B. Black and B. Bugbee 2020. Quantifying Tree Hydration using Electromagnetic Sensors. Horticulturae 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae6010002
  • Waldron, B, J. Sagers, M. Peel, C. Rigby, B. Bugbee. 2020. Salinity Reduces the Forage Quality of Forage Kochia: A Halophytic Chenopodiaceae Shrub. Rangleland Ecology and management. 73:384-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rama.2019.12.005
  • Stott, L., B. Black and B. Bugbee. 2019. Differences in Drought Tolerance among Gisela® Cherry Rootstocks Determined using Automated Weighing Lysimeters. HortScience 54(10): 1847-1852 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14267-19
  • Wheeler, W., B. Black, R. Watslusky, G. Cardon, and B. Bugbee. 2019. Drought Tolerance of Navajo and Lovell Peach Trees: Precision Water Stress Using Automated Weighing Lysimeters. HortScience 54(5): 799-803. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13806-18
  • Soundararajan, M., R. Ledbetter, P Kusuma, S Zhen, P Ludden, B Bugbee, S. Ensign and L Seefeldt. 2019. Phototrophic N2 and CO2 Fixation Using a Rhodopseudomonas palustris-H2 Mediated Electrochemical System with Infrared Photons. Front. Microbiol. 10:1817 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01817
  • Monje, O. and B. Bugbee. 2019. Radiometric Method for Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance. Agronomy. 9(3): 114. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9030114
  • Pattison, M., J. Tsao, G. Brainard & B. Bugbee. 2018. LEDs for photons physiology and food. Nature 563: 493-500. DOI:org/10.1038/s41586-018-0706-x 
  • Tibbitts, S. and B. Bugbee, P. Francescatto, T. Robinson, B. Black. 2018. Effect of scion and graft type on transpiration, hydraulic resistance and xylem hormone profile of apples grafted on Geneva®41 and M.9-NICTM29 rootstocks.  Scientia Horticulturae 227:213-222 DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2017.09.052
  • Sagers, J., Waldron, B. E. Creech, I. Mott, and B. Bugbee. 2017. Salinity tolerance of three competing rangeland plant species: Studies in hydroponic culture. Ecology and Evolution. 7 (24): 10916–10929.  DOI:10.1002/ece3.3607
  • Parry, C. and B. Bugbee. 2017. Reduced Root-zone Phosphorous concentration Decreases Iron Chlorosis in Maize in Soilless substrates. HortTechnology. 27(4) 490-493. Doi:10.21273/HORTTECH03735-17. 
  • Both, AJ, B. Bugbee, C Kubota, R Lopez, C Mitchell, E Runkle and C Wallace. 2017. Proposed Product Label for Electric Lamps Used in Plant Sciences. HortTechnology 27: 544-549. doi: 10.21273/HORTTECH03648-16
  • Snowden, C., K. Cope, and B. Bugbee. 2016. Sensitivity of seven diverse species to blue and green light: Interactions with photon flux. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163121
  • Morris, K.A., J. M. Stark, B. Bugbee, J. M. Norton. 2016. The invasive annual cheatgrass releases more nitrogen than crested wheatgrass through root exudation and senescence. Oecologia. DOI 10.1007/s00442-015-3544-7.
  • Bugbee B. 2016. Toward an optimal spectral quality for plant growth and development: The importance of radiation capture. Acta Hortic. 1134, 1-12. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1134.1
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2015. The challenges of measuring net radiation. Meteorological Technology International. Sept. p. 100-102.
  • Nelson, J. and B. Bugbee. 2015. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes. PLoSOne. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138930
  • Blonquist, M. and B. Bugbee. 2014. Active or Passive: The challenge of accurately measuring air temperature. Meteorological Technology International. Aug. p. 78-82.
  • Nelson, J. and B. Bugbee. 2014. Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Lighting: Light Emitting Diodes vs. High Intensity Discharge Fixtures. PLoSOne. Vol 9:6 10pp. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099010
  • Parry, C., M. Blonquist, and B. Bugbee. 2014. In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: Analysis of the optical/absolute relationship. Plant Cell and Environ. 37(11): 2508–2520. DOI: 10.1111/pce.12324
  • Adams, C. and B. Bugbee. 2014. Nitrogen retention and partitioning at the initiation of lipid accumulation in nitrogen-deficient algae.  Jour. Phycology. In press. DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12167
  • Cope, K, M. Chase Snowden, and B. Bugbee. 2014.  Photobiological Interactions of Blue Light and Photosynthetic Photon Flux: Effects of Monochromatic and Broad-Spectrum Light Sources.  Photochemistry and Photobiology. In press. DOI: 10.1111/php.12233
  • Adams, C., Jacobson, A. Bugbee, B. 2013. Ceramic aggregate sorption and desorption chemistry: Implications for use as a component of soilless media. Journal of Plant Nutrition.  In press. DOI:  10.1080/01904167.2013.837921
  • Adams, C. and B. Bugbee. 2013. Enhancing lipid production of the marine diatom Chaetoceros5 gracilis: synergistic interactions of sodium chloride and silicon.  J Appl Phycol.  In press. DOI 10.1007/s10811-013-0156-7.
  • Doucette, W., H. Klein, J. Chard, R. Dupont, B. Bugbee, W. Plaehn.  2013. Volatilization of Trichloroethylene from Trees and Soil: Measurement and Scaling Approaches. Environ. Sci. and Technology. 47(11):5813–5820. DOI 10.1021/es304115c
  • Cope, K, and B. Bugbee. 2013.  Spectral Effects of Three Types of White Light-Emitting Diodes on Plant Growth and Development: Absolute versus Relative Amounts of Blue Light.  HortScience. 48(4):504–509.
  • Adams, C., Jacobson, A. Bugbee, B. 2013. Ceramic aggregate sorption and desorption chemistry: Implications for use as a component of soilless media. Journal of Plant Nutrition. In Press.
  • Romagnano, J. and B. Bugbee. 2013.  Light level does not alter ethylene sensitivity in radish or pea.  Jour. Plant Growth Regulation.  71:67-75. DOI 10.1007/s10725-013-9810-y
  • Adams, C., Frantz, J., Bugbee, B. 2013. Macro- and micronutrient-release characteristics of three polymer-coated fertilizers: Theory and Measurements. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 176. 76-88.
  • Adams, C., Godfrey, V., Wahlen , B., Seefeldt, L., Bugbee, B.  2012. Understanding precision nitrogen stress to optimize the growth and lipid content tradeoff in oleaginous green microalgae. Bioresource Technology. 131: 188-194.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.143
  • Wahlen, B., M. Morgan, A. McCurdy, R. Willis, M. Morgan, D. Dye, B. Bugbee, B. Wood, and L. Seefeldt. 2012. Biodiesel from Microalgae, Yeast, and Bacteria: Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions.  Energy & Fuels.  27: 220-228.  DOI: 10.1021/ef3012382
  • Stoklosa A. Weiss I, and B. Bugbee. 2011. Composition and Functional Properties of Apogee and Perigee Wheat compared to common terrestrial wheat cultivars. International Journal of Food Properties. 14(5) 996-1006.
  • Slavens, M., P. Johnson, and B. Bugbee. 2011. Irrigation frequency differentially alters vegetative growth and seed-head development of Poa annua biotypes. Crop Sci 51:1-9.
  • Johnson, I., J. Thornley, J. Frantz, and B. Bugbee. 2010. A model of canopy photosynthesis incorporating protein distribution through the canopy and its acclimation to light, temperature and CO2. Annals of Botany 106:735-749.
  • Blonquist, M., R. Allen, and B. Bugbee. 2010. An Evaluation of the Net Radiation Sub-model in the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation: Implications for Evapotranspiration Prediction. Ag. Water Management. 97:1026-1038.
  • Blonquist, M., J. Norman, and B. Bugbee. 2009. Automated measurement of canopy stomatal conductance based on infra-red temperature. Ag. and Forest Meteorology 149:1931-1945.
  • Jones, S. B. Bugbee, R Heinse, D. Or, and G Bingham. 2009. Porous plant growth media Design considerations for lunar and Martian habitats. SAE International paper no. 2009- 01-2361.
  • Blonquist, M., B. Tanner, and B. Bugbee 2009. Evaluation of measurement accuracy and Comparison of Two New and Three Traditional Net Radiometers. Ag. and Forest Meteorology149:1709-1721.
  • Dettenmaier, E, W. Doucette, B. Bugbee. 2009. Chemical Hydrophobicity and Uptake by Plant Roots. Environmental Sci. and Technology 43:324-329.
  • Chen, D. M. Liang, D. DeWald, B. Weimer, M. Peel, B. Bugbee, J. Michaelson, E. Davis, Y. Wu. 2008. Identification of dehydration responsive genes from two non-nodulated alfalfa cultivars using Medicago truncatula microarrays. Acta Physiol. Plant 30:183-189.
  • Frantz, J., N. Cometti, M. van Iersel, and B. Bugbee. 2007. Rethinking Acclimation of Growth and Maintenance Respiration of Tomato in Elevated CO2: Effects of a Sudden Change in Light at Different Temperatures. Jour. Plant Ecology 31 (4)100-110.
  • Henry, A., W. Doucette, J. Norton, and B. Bugbee. 2007. Changes in Crested Wheatgrass Root Exudation caused by Flood, Drought, and Nutrient Stress. Jour. Environmental Quality 36:904-912.
  • Chard, B., W. Doucette, J, Chard, and B. Bugbee. 2006. Trichloroethylene Uptake by Apple and Peach Trees and Transfer to Fruit. Environ. Sci. and Technology 40(15):4788-4793.
  • Henry, A., W. Doucette, J. Norton, S. Jones, J. Chard, and B. Bugbee. 2006. Design and Maintenance of an Axenic Plant Culture system to Facilitate Optimal growth in Long- term studies. Jour. Environmental Quality 35(2):590-598.
  • Frantz, J. and B. Bugbee. 2005. Acclimation of Plant Populations to Shade: Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Carbon Use Efficiency. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130(6):918-927.
  • Doucette, W. B. Wheeler, J. Chard, B. Bugbee, C. Naylor, J. Carbone, and R. Sims. 2005. Uptake of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates by Crested Wheatgrass. Environ. Toxicology and Chemistry 24:2965-2972.
  • Klassen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2004. Ethylene Synthesis and Sensitivity in Crop Plants. HortScience 39:1546-1552.
  • Frantz, J., D. Pinnock, S. Klassen, and B. Bugbee. 2004. Characterizing the Environmental Response of a Gibberellic Acid Deficient Rice for Use as a Model Crop. Agronomy Jour. 96:1172-1181.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 2004. Long-term Blue Light Effects on the Histology of Lettuce and Soybean Leaves and Stems. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129:467-472.
  • Frantz, J., N. Cometti, and B. Bugbee. 2004. Night Temperature has a Minimal Effect on Respiration and Growth in rapidly Growing Plants. Ann. Botany 94:155-166.
  • Frantz, J., G. Ritchie, N. Cometti, J. Robinson, and B. Bugbee. 2004. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: Beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 129:331-338..
  • Mackowiak, C., P. Grossl, and B. Bugbee. 2003. Biogeochemistry of Fluoride in a Plant-solution system. Jour. of Environmental Quality 32:2230-2238.
  • Drysdale, A. and B. Bugbee. 2003. Optimizing a Plant Habitat for Space: A Novel Approach to Plant Growth on the Moon. Int. Conf. Environ. Systems 2003-01-2360.
  • Klassen, S. and B. Bugbee. 2002. Sensitivity of Wheat and Rice to Low Levels of Atmospheric Ethylene. Crop Sci. 42:746-753.
  • Frantz, J. and B. Bugbee. 2002. Anaerobic Conditions Improve Germination of a Gibberellic Acid Deficient Rice. Crop Sci. 42:651-654.
  • Mackowiak, C., P. Grossl, and B. Bugbee. 2001. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 65:1744-1750.
  • Campbell, W., F. Salisbury, B. Bugbee, S. Klassen, E. Nagle, D. Strickland, G. Bingham, M Levinskikh, G. Iljina, T. Veselova, V. Sytchev, I. Podolsky, W. McManus, D. Bubenheim, J. Stieber, and G. Jahns. 2001. Comparative floral development of Mir-grown and ethylene treated Earth-grown Super Dwarf wheat. Jour. Plant Physiol. 158:1051-1060.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 2001. Differences in the response of Wheat, Soybean, and Lettuce to reduced blue radiation. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 73:199-207.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 2001. Evidence for yellow light suppression of lettuce growth. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 73:208-212.
  • Van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 2000. A multiple chamber, semi-continuous, crop carbon dioxide exchange system: Design, calibration, and data interpretation. Jour. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125:86-92.
  • Orchard, B.J., W.J. Doucette, J.K. Chard and B. Bugbee. 2000a. A Novel Laboratory System for Determining the Fate of Trichloroethylene in Plants. Environ. Tox. Chem. 19:888-894.
  • Orchard, B.J., W.J. Doucette, J.K. Chard and B. Bugbee. 2000b. Uptake of Trichloroethylene by Hybrid Poplar Trees Grown Hydroponically in High Rate, Flow-through Plant Growth Chambers. Environ. Tox. Chem. 19:895-903.
  • J. Cavazzoni, T. Volk, B. Bugbee, and T. Dougher. 2000. Phasic Temperature and Photoperiod Control for Soybean using a Modified Crop Gro Model. Life Supp. Biosphere Sci. 6:273-278.
  • Bugbee, B. 1999. Engineering Plants for Spaceflight Environments. American Soc. for Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin. 12:67-74.
  • Stahl, R., P. Grossl, and B. Bugbee. 1999. Effect of 2(N-Morpholino)ethane Sulfonic Acid (MES) on the Growth and Tissue Composition of Cucumber. Jour. Plant Nutrition 22:315-330.
  • Bugbee, B., M. Droter, O. Monje, and B. Tanner. 1999. Evaluation and Modification of Commercial Infra-red Transducers for Leaf Temperature Measurement. Adv. In Space Res. 22:1425-1434.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Is Blue Light Good or Bad for Plants? Life Support and Biosphere Science. 5:129-136.
  • Bishop, D. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Photosynthetic Capacity and Dry Mass Partitioning in Dwarf and Semi-dwarf Wheat. Jour. Plant Physiology 153:558-565.
  • Smart, D., K. Ritchie, A. Bloom, and B. Bugbee. 1998. Nitrogen Balance for Wheat Canopies Grown under Elevated and Ambient CO2 Concentrations. Plant Cell Environ. 21:753-763.
  • Dougher, T. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Effect of Lamp Type and Temperature on Development, Carbon Partitioning, and Yield of soybean. Adv. Space Res. 5:129-136.
  • Grotenhuis, T., J. Reuveni, and B. Bugbee. 1998. Super-optimal CO2 Reduces Yield in Growth Chamber and Greenhouse Environments. Adv. Space Res. 20:1901-1904.
  • Monje, O. and B. Bugbee. 1998. Adaptation to High CO2 Concentration in an Optimal Environment: Radiation Capture, Canopy Quantum Yield, and Carbon Use Efficiency. Plant Cell Environ. 21:315-324.
  • Jurgonski, L., D. Smart, B. Bugbee, and S. Nielsen. 1998. Controlled Environments Alter Nutrient Content of Soybeans. Adv. Space Res. 20:1979-1988.
  • Bugbee, B. and G. Koerner. 1997. Yield Comparisons and Unique Characteristics of the Dwarf Wheat Cultivar AUSU-Apogee”. Adv. Space Res. 20:1891-1894.
  • Volk, T., B. Bugbee, and F. Tubiello. 1997. Phasic Temperature Control Appraised with the CERES-Wheat Model. Life Support & Biosphere Sci. 4:49-54.
  • Smart, D., K. Ritchie, J. Stark, and B. Bugbee. 1997. Evidence that Elevated CO2 Levels and Indirectly Increase Rhizosphere Denitrifier Activity. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 63:4621-4624.
  • Tubiello, F., T. Volk, and B. Bugbee. 1997. Diffuse Light and Wheat Radiation-Use Efficiency in a Controlled Environment. Life Support & Biosphere Sci. 4:77-85.
  • Grotenhuis, T. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Super-optimal CO2 reduces Seed Yield but not Vegetative Growth in Wheat. Crop Sci. 37:1215-1222.
  • Reuveni, J. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Very High CO2 Reduces Photosynthesis, Dark Respiration, and Yield in Wheat. Annals of Botany 80:539-546.
  • Ferro, A., J. Kennedy, W. Doucette, S. Nelson, G. Jauregi, B. McFarland, and B. Bugbee. 1997. Fate of Benzene in Soils Planted with Alfalfa: Uptake, Volatilization, and Degradation. Chapt. 16. pp 223-237. IN: Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants. E. Kruger, T. Anderson, and J. Coats (eds). Symposium Series 664. Amer. Chemical Soc. Washington, DC.
  • Bugbee, B., G. Koerner, R. Albrechtsen, W. Dewey, and S. Clawson. 1997. Registration of USU-Apogee Wheat. Crop Science 37:626.
  • van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Increased Organic Matter in the Growing Medium Decreases Benlate DF Phytotoxicity. Plant Disease. 81:743-748.
  • van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Dibutyl urea reduces photosynthesis and growth of Petunia and Impatiens. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 122:536-541.
  • Monje, O. And B. Bugbee. 1996. Characterizing Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Plant Communities in Controlled Environments. Acta Hort. ISHS 440:123-128.
  • Bugbee, B. 1996. Growth Analysis and Yield Components. In: Units, Symbols, and Terminology for Plant Physiology. F. Salisbury (ed.). Oxford University Press.
  • van Iersel, M. and B. Bugbee. 1996. Phytotoxic Effects of Benzimidazole Fungicides on Bedding Plants. Jour. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121:1095-1102.
  • Smart, D., K. Ritchie, and B. Bugbee. 1996. Mass Transfer in the Biological Fast Lane: High CO2 and a Shallow Root-zone. Life Support and Biosphere Sci. 3:43-46.
  • Bugbee, B. O. Monje, and B. Tanner. 1996. Quantifying Energy and Mass Transfer in Crop Canopies. Advances in Space Research 18:149-156.
  • McKeehen, J. C. Mitchell, R. Wheeler, B. Bugbee, and S. Nielsen. 1996. Excess Nutrients in Hydroponic Solutions alter Nutrient content of Rice, Wheat, and Potato. Advances in Space Research. 18:73-83.
  • Bugbee, B. 1995. The Components of Crop Productivity: Measuring and Modeling Plant Metabolism. Am. Soc. of Gravitational and Space Biology. 8:93-104.
  • Smart, D., A. Ferro, K. Ritchie, and B. Bugbee. 1995. On the Use of Antibiotics to Reduce Rhizoplane Microbial Populations in Root Physiology and Ecology Investigations. Physiol. Plantarum 95:533-540.
  • Volk, T, R. Wheeler, and B. Bugbee. 1995. An Approach to Crop Modeling with the Energy Cascade. Life Support and Biosphere Science 1:119-127.
  • Bugbee, B. B. Spanarkel, S. Johnson, O. Monje, and G. Koerner. 1994. CO2 Crop Growth Enhancement and Toxicity in Wheat and Rice. Advances in Space Research 14:257-267.
  • Smart, D., J. Chatterton, and B. Bugbee. 1994. The influence of Elevated CO2 on Nonstructural Carbohydrate Distribution and Fructan Accumulation in Wheat. Plant, Cell, and Environment 17:435-442.
  • Ferro, A., R. Simms, and B. Bugbee. 1994. Hycrest Crested Wheatgrass accelerates the Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Soil. Jour. Environmental Quality 23:272-279.
  • Barnes, C., T. Tibbitts, J. Sager, G. Deitzer, D. Bubenheim, G. Koerner, and B. Bugbee. 1993. Accuracy of Quantum Sensors Measuring Yield Photon Flux and Photosynthetic Photons Flux. HortScience 28:1197-1200.
  • Bugbee, B. and O. Monje. 1992. The Limits of Crop Productivity: Theory and Validation. BioScience 42:494-502.
  • Bugbee, B. 1992. Steady State Gas Exchange in Growth Chambers: System Design and Operation. HortScience 27:770-776.
  • Barnes, C. and B. Bugbee. 1992. Morphological Responses of Wheat to Blue Light. Jour. of Plant Physiol. 139:339-342.
  • Monje, O. and B. Bugbee. 1992. Inherent Limitations of Nondestructive Chlorophyll Meters: A Comparison of Two Types of Meters. HortScience 27:69-71.
  • Bugbee, B. 1991. Determining the Potential Productivity of Food Crops in Controlled Environments. Adv. Space Res. 12:85-95.
  • Volk, T. and B. Bugbee. 1991. Modeling Light and Temperature Effects on Leaf Emergence in Wheat and Barley. Crop Science 31:1218-1224.
  • Barnes, C. and B. Bugbee. 1991. Morphological Responses of Wheat to Changes in Phytochrome Photoequilibrium. Plant Physiol. 97:359-365.
  • Bugbee, B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1989. Current and Poten¬tial Productivity of Wheat for a Controlled Environment Life Support System. Advances in Space Research. 9:5-15.
  • Bugbee B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1988. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: Photosynthetic Efficiency in High Irradiance Environments. Plant Physiol. 88:869-878.
  • Bubenheim, D.L., B. Bugbee and F.B. Salisbury. 1988. Radiation in Controlled Environments: Influence of lamp type and filter material. Jour. Am. Soc. of Hort. Sci. 113:468-474.
  • Salisbury, F.B., and B. Bugbee. 1988. Plant Productivity in Controlled Environments. Symposium on Plant Productivity in Space. HortSci. 23:293-299.
  • Salisbury, F.B., B. Bugbee, and D. Bubenheim. 1987. Wheat Production in Controlled Environments. Advances in Space Research 7:123-132.
  • Bugbee, B. and F.B. Salisbury. 1985. An Evaluation of MES (2(N-Mor-pholino)ethanesulfonic Acid) and Amberlite IRC-50 as pH Buffers for Nutrient Solution Studies. J. Plant Nutr. 8:567-583.
  • Bugbee, B. and J.W. White. 1984. Tomato Growth as Affected by Root-zone Temperatures and the Addition of Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin to Nutrient Solutions. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109:121-125.